An easy way to understand Samplers is by comparing them to chefs. Just as chefs/Samplers prepare a dish/mage from a recipe/prompt, each chef puts their unique touch on the dish, making it slightly or significantly different from one another. This is similar to how Samplers generate images based on the same source but with their distinct characteristics.
The Quality and Detail slider can be thought of as the time chefs take to cook/generate the dish/mage. Some chefs can present a good dish in less time than others, or even with a more pleasant presentation from those who take more time. Below, you'll find a table showcasing all the Samplers used with the same prompt and seed, but with varying Quality and Detail settings. This will give you a brief insight into each Sampler's output at a particular point. Some are quite consistent across values, while others evolve or produce wildly different results (e.g., K_euler_ancestral, which is currently buggy but should be more consistent once fixed).
To better understand the nuances of each Sampler, experiment with different prompts and settings to get a feel for how they generate images.